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Who was Ahmad Shah Durrani?

    In the history of Afghanistan, there have been many mighty rulers and sovereigns, however, one stood out from all of them. He was a  pious, patriotic, and merciful man who had all the profound traits of an exceptional leader, and ruled his lands with justice. He not only became the hero of all Afghans but also saved Islam in the subcontinent. In this video, we will go through the chapters of the life of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan ruler who united the Afghan tribes and became the founder of modern Afghanistan, as well as the father of his nation.   Ahmad Shah Durrani      Ahmad Khan Abdali was born in Herat, in 1723. He was the son of Zaman Khan, and the grandson of Dawlat Khan. He was from the Pashtun Sadouzai Tribe, a sub tribe of the Abdali Tribe. The story starts in  1732 CE, in Farah, Afghanistan, when Ahmad Khan's older brother, Zulfiqar Khan was defeated by his enemies. Zulfiqar Khan took his younger brother Ahmad Khan with him and fled to Kandahar, where they sought

Who was Osman Ghazi?

    The year 1258 was the deadly year the Islamic world will never forget. By the command of Hulago Hun, the Abbasid was torn to pieces. The Mongols not only burnt and destroyed all the greatest books written by the greatest Islamic scholars, but also killed woman, children, young, old, anyone they found alive was immediately put to the sword. The only ones who were alive were those Christians and Jews who took refuge from them. As well as few Muslims who hid in unstable wells, forests, and barren lands, survived. However, those who could not save themselves were killed in such a way that there were streams of blood flowing in Baghdad. On the other hand, the byzantine Empire too was declining, as the Latin nights of the Fourth Crusade had taken the capital city, Constantinople. The fall of Constantinople was significant, as it had never before fell, and indicated that the fall of the Byzantines was soon to come. Then, after the battle of Kozadagh ended with victory ended with victory for the Mongol invaders, the Seljuk Sultans were reduced to vassals. The Islamic world was in desperate need of a leader.

Osman Ghazi

    However, the year 1258, the same year that Mongol tyranny had destroyed the Islamic world, a leader was born. He would be a tall man with very broad shoulders. He would be a brilliant leader. He would be the best known rider and swordsman. He would be brave, fair, and gracious. He would always help the poor. He would be such a man, that his existence would give a sigh of relief to the oppressed, and terror to the oppressors. He was none other than Osman the First, son of Ertugrul Ghazi, leader of the famous Kayi Tribe. When Osman was born, Ertugrul Ghazi was around 67 years old. And his mother, Halime Sultan too, was around the age when normally woman cannot have children anymore. Osman was considered as a miracle sent by God. 

Osman's dream

    Osman was attached wholeheartedly to a famous scholar by the name of Sheikh Edebali, who was also a great supporter of his father Ertugrul Ghazi. However, Osman often went to visit him. Once when Osman slept at the shrine of Sheikh Edebali, he dreamt of a moon that moved from the heart of his sheikh to his heart. And a tree grew from his side, which continued to grow, even though its branches had already covered the entire Earth and oceans. The four largest rivers of the world were flowing out from the roots of the tree. The four largest mountains of the world were supporting its stem. Then, air started blowing very fast, and the leaves of the tree were  blowing off in the direction of a great city, which appeared at the junction of the two largest continents, and the two largest oceans, and appeared like a ring. Osman was going to wear this ring, however, he woke up. When Osman explained his dream to sheikh Edebali, he congratulated him and told him, "Allah (SWT) has chosen you and your children for serving Islam, and my daughter (Bala Hatun) will be married to you. The rivers in the dream of Osman were Tigris, Euphrates, Neil, and Danube. And the mountains were Toor, Balkans, Qaf, and Atlas. Afterwards, in the age of Osman's children, the empire reached these mountains and rivers. And so the dream was an actual prophecy of the expansion of the empire. The city in the dream was Constantinople, which was soon conquered by the heir of Osman Ghazi, Sultan Muhammed Al-Fatih.

Sultan Muhammed Al-Fatih

    After Ertugrul Ghazi passed away, Osman, who was just 23 years old at the time, became the new leader of the Kayi Tribe. Almost right away, Osman started to expand the borders of his father's territory. Osman Ghazi became known as an expert in war and peace. And so with the Mongols wrecking terror across Anatolia, many refugees joined the Beylic of Osman, increasing the number of warriors in his tribe. His eldest brother Gunduz, was his most trusted commander, while his other brother Savci was his most trusted advisor. Savci Bey was also a renowned warrior, and later fell as a martyr in the battle of Ekizce, in 1287. Both brothers would help Osman greatly during his conquests. Around ten years after Osman had become Bey, in 1299, he symbolically created an independent state when he stopped paying taxes to the Mongol Emperor. Soon, Osman and his men started the expansion of the empire, acquiring the key forts and cities of Eskisehir, Inonu, Bilecik, and eventually Yenisehir, where he established a capital for the new Ottoman State. This gave the Ottomans a strong base to lay siege to Bursa, which they also acquired after a five year long siege. Bursa was a major commercial center which opened up the new state to the rest of the world. From that point on, the Ottoman State was an important player in the events and decisions affecting the Middle East and Eastern Europe.

The coin minted by Osman

    Besides military actions, Osman Ghazi also established all new measures to form a new empire. Such as establishing, new laws and minting the first Ottoman coins. And so Osman was the first to levy a tax of one Akce. There were many battles between Osman and Emir Aqlinos for several years. But at last, the Christian commander had given the control of the city to Osman. Aqlinos was so inspired by the faithfulness of Osman, that he embraced Osman. Osman gave him the title of Bey, and later on he had become one of the greatest commanders of the Ottoman Empire. Many commanders of the Byzantine Empire were so inspired with Osman's Personality, that a time came, that the Ottoman Empire was full of new, former Byzantine Muslim commanders. As a ruler and commander, Osman was known to be just in his decisions and in his treatment of all of citizens, regardless of ethnicity or religion.

Osman Ghazi's final advice

    On his deathbed at Sogut, according to the legend, Osman Ghazi gave his son Orhan his final advice: "My son, I am dying, and I die without regret, because I leave such a successor as you. Be just, love goodness, and show mercy. Give equal protection to all of your subjects, and extend the law of the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him). Such are the duties of princes upon Earth, and it is thus that they bring on them the blessings of heaven." In recognition of the importance of the victory, Osman Ghazi then directed Orhan to bury him at Bursa and to make it the capital city of the new empire. Shortly after, Osman Ghazi passed away at the age of 67, in 1326. As requested, he was buried at Bursa in a beautiful tomb, which was to stand as a monument to him for several centuries after his death. All he left behind was horse armor, a pair of high boots, a sword, a lance, a wagon, a few horses, three herds of sheep, as well as salt and spoon containers. He led a simple life, and never gathered belongings. He always divided the loot between soldiers after giving a portion to the orphans and the poor. He was very generous, merciful, and hospitable. He always dealt with justice. It is because of those good doings, that even today, he is still respected by all who utter his name. And to this day, there has not been a single family in Islamic history, that has been able to give talented and worthy rulers such as the Ottomans. And there has yet to have been an Islamic dynasty to rule for 600 years, like the Ottomans did. This was the father of the mighty Ottoman Empire, Osman Ghazi. Today, he is buried in his tomb in Bursa, Turkey. And he has always been remembered in the hearts of all Muslims.

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