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Who was Köse Mihal? | The Real History of Mikhael Kosses | The First Byzantine to join the Ottomans

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    During the early era of the Ottoman Empire, there were many Byzantine lords and commanders that joined the ranks of the Ottomans, even converting to Islam. The first (significant one) among them being  Köse Mihal, also known as Mikhael Kosses. In this video we will go over his life, achievements, exploits, and the legacy he left behind.           Mikhael Kosses, an ethnic Greek, is believed to have been from the famous Palaiologos Dynasty, which ruled the Byzantine Empire from the years 1259 until its downfall in 1453CE, the longest a dynasty ever ruled the empire. Köse Mihal was the Byzantine governor of the Harmankaya Castle. The Harmankaya Castle was in the Uludag mountains in the foothills of Bilecik, Turkey. After taking part in a battle against Osman Ghazi, alongside the Byzantine governor of Eskisehir, he was captured and taken prisoner. However, he was forgiven by Osman for his valor and heroism.       In the following years, a trap would be set up for Osman by the neighbor

Sulayman Shah or Gunduz Alp: Who was the Father of Ertugrul Ghazi?

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    Sulayman Shah: the name that is famous all throughout the world,  known to have been the name of the father of Ertugrul. Meanwhile, the name Gunduz Alp is known to have been the name of Ertugrul's eldest son. Though, in reality, there is a lot more to these two names than that which most people know of.      According to the Ottoman legend, which was made hundreds of years after the establishment of the  empire, Sulayman Shah, the son of Kaya Alp, was the father of Ertugrul. But in reality, most historians (Ahmedi, Karani Mehmed Pasha, Enveri, and Ruhi, who are among the sources of the early Ottoman period) agree that it was actually Gunduz Alp, the son of Gok Alp, who was the father of Ertugrul. The reason being, in the coins minted by Osman during his reign were found "Osman bin Ertugrul bin Gunduz Alp." This alone is an evidence too great to dismiss. On top of that, it was a common tradition to name one's son after their father. Thus, it makes perfect sense tha

The Chinese Emperor who tried to Erase History

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    During the  year 213 BC, an emperor was ruling over China that hated history so much, that he ordered all history books, old records, poems, and writings to be burnt. The only books that he permitted were those about agriculture and similar subjects that he viewed as useful. Anybody found in possession of any other types of books would be put to death immediately.     This emperor's name was Shih Huang-ti; he was the first emperor of all China, as well as one of the greatest warriors to ever have been heard of. He was from a  province called "Ch'in," and so his family inherited the name. It is likely that all of China was named after him.      Shih Huang-ti was the reorganizer of China, he managed to conquer all the provinces and transform pieces of land into an entire country. He ended the rule of the various princes and created a strong  state. However, he thought that in order for an entirely new China to be built, it was necessary to wipe out every trace of ho

Who was Akcakoca?

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    Akcakoca: the fierce warrior that conquered various lands during the early era of the Ottoman Empire. He was a beloved companion of Ertugrul, Osman, and even Orhan. However, what did he do to contribute so much to the establishment of the Ottoman  Empire and why do we still remember his name?     The name Akca, which is pure Turkish, bears traces of the Kayi tradition. Akcakoca is believed to have been the chief of a Turkmen tribe that had settled near the Byzantine border during the Anatolian Seljuk's period. He later became one of Ertugrul and Osman's closest comrade. He was also an early Ottoman Akinci Bey, meaning he was the head of the mobile, Ottoman advance guard that would raid the frontiers. From the year 1300-1310, Akcakoca made conquests in the coastal region stretching from Karasu to the shore of the Black Sea. Meanwhile, Orhan Bey, who was then a young prince, was gaining experience alongside him. In 1320, he was commissioned by Osman Ghazi to raid the Sakarya

Who was Saltuk Alp?

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      During the early era of the Ottoman Empire, there were a few heroic warriors who contributed significantly to the establishment of the state. These heroes were the closest confidants of Ertugrul and Osman Ghazi, and would later serve as the great military commanders, local governors, and administrators of the Ottoman Beylic. And even later on, their sons and grandsons would reach preeminence in the Ottoman administration and army.   Among these early Ottoman Ghazis was a warrior named Saltuk Alp.  Saltuk Alp     Saltuk Alp was one of Ertugrul Ghazi's greatest comrades. It is known that Osman Ghazi especially trusted him during his reign. In fact, in Asikpasaoglu's works, he writes that Osman Ghazi sent Saltuk Alp as a companion in Orhan ghazi's first expeditions.     When Osman went on an expedition to the Sakarya Valley, he assigned Kose Mihal and Saltuk Alp to assist his son Orhan Ghazi in ensuring the security of the region. The Cavdarlu Tatars, who really wanted t

Who was Bala Hatun?

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    Osman Ghazi's lineage would go on to rule over a huge empire that would expand over 3 continents and last over 600 years. After hundreds of years, people are still wondering about the origins of this empire. That is why today's video is about a mother of the Ottoman Empire, Bala Hatun.  Rabia Bala Hatun     Historians have debated whether Osman Ghazi had one, two, or three wives. The reason being, in various sources, the names Rabia, Bala, and Malhun were found. According to some sources, all three names were of one person, who was the daughter of the famous scholar, Sheikh Edebali. I n the reports of Uric, Rabia is the name of the daughter of Edebali, and in those of Asikpasadaze and Nesri her name is Malhun. However, the most accurate opinion regarding this was that Rabia Bala Hatun was the name of the daughter of Sheikh Edebali and that Malhun Hatun was the name of the daughter of Omer Bey, a Turkmen Cheif.     Sources have determined that Malhun Hatun, was indeed, the f

How the Mongols Conquered the Middle East | Method of the Mongol Conquests

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    During the 13th century, Genghis Khan and the Mongols adopted a method of conquest that lead to the rapid conquest of the  Middle East. The Mongols would invade a neighboring area, devastate a large region, and recede back into the empire, retaining only a small portion of the land they invaded. In this new borderland, the Mongols would establish a force called a Tamma, which used the region to control Mongol frontiers, as well as intimidate and raid neighboring powers. It was the strategy that Baycu Noyan and other prominent Mongol commanders used in the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. The modern word for this method is "Tsunami Strategy".     A perfect example of the Tsunami Strategy is the declining Seljuks. The Mongols viewed them as a theatre of  operation, rather than undirected conquests. That is why after the Battle of Kose Dagh, when the whole of Anatolia played open for easy conquests, the Mongols refrained from conquering, primarily because it did not fit into t

How did Slavery become a World Enterprise (1492)

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    It was the early 1400's, the Moors had been on a rapid decline due to division, internal strife, and attacks by  Christian forces. After King Ferdinand and Queen Isabelle united their Spanish kingdoms, they took over Muslim Spain with ease. The year was 1492, and it had been 800 years since Spain had been ruled by non-Muslims. That same year, an Italian explorer named Christopher Columbus pleaded before the king and queen, wishing to embark on a voyage to India, China and Japan for the purpose of finding a new route, which could be a means of trade and riches such silk and spices. However, the king and queen had little faith in him and sent him with the worst of ships, and a crew consisting of released prisoners who knew little to nothing about the sea. No one could ever imagine what Columbus would discover.  Columbus embarks on his journey     Though Columbus would never make it to Asia, he lead to a much more important discovery: the New World, also known as the Americas. Tho

Did George Washington pay taxes to the Ottoman Empire?

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    During the periods of Sultan Bayezid II and Sultan Selim I, the Ottoman Navy was expanding and employing experienced sailors . When Barbaros Hayreddin was made Grand Admiral in 1534, the Ottoman Navy would become the most dominant force in the sea, and it would change the course of Ottoman History. Outnumbering, allied Christian fleets would be indefinitely defeated, and Ottoman Sultans would be called "Sultans of the seas". Ottoman Sea warriors in North Africa ventured beyond the Mediterranean into the Atlantic. Ottoman sea power extended to the point that Britain itself was forced to pay taxes to the Ottomans. And so when America gained its independence from Britain, it was forced to do the same when all of its resisting navy ships were captured by the Ottomans. Despite all the money spent on his navy, George Washington was left with no choice but to sign a treaty in Turkish accepting all the terms of the Ottomans, including tax payments. To this day, it is the only eve

Who was Bamsi Beyrek?

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    The fierce & aggressive, double sworded warrior;  famous & legendary Oghuz nobleman;  hilarious & kind hearted, handsome & generous by nature: Bamsi Beyrek. Bamsi was a legendary hero, who's life was documented in "The Book of Dede Korkut", which is believed to have been over thousands of years old. Bamsi was said to have been the best friend of the main character in the book, Salur Kazan. However, what do we know about the life of the Oghuz legend, Bamsi Beyrek?     Many thousands of years ago,  there was a grand gathering of all Oghuz Princes in the presence of Bayindir Khan (the Aq Qayunlu Sultan). Upon seeing that every other nobleman had a son beside him, one of the princes, Bay Bure, started to weep. One of the noblemen, Salur Kazan (who happened to be the son in law of Bayindir Khan) asked him, "why do you weep"? Bay Bure replied, telling them he did not have a son or brother to carry on his family. And so, all the Oghuz princes prayed

How did Dundar Bey die?

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      One of the most debated topics of early Ottoman History: Dundar Bey's death. Many great historians believe that Dundar Bey was not killed by his nephew, Osman I, while other notable sources claim he was. Some say he was killed by Osman's bow, while others argue he died of a natural cause. As a result, a question is frequently asked: how did Dundar Bey die in actual history?     In order to come to a conclusion as to how  Dundar died, we must look at his situation & the circumstances surrounding him. Dundar was among the 300 families to accompany Ertugrul Ghazi to the Byzantine border, despite the fact that roughly 1,000 families remained with Gundogdu & Sungurtekin. Though he had made several errors & mistakes, Dundar had remained loyal to his brother, Ertugrul Ghazi, and only dreamt of serving his nation. However, after the death of Ertugrul Ghazi, Dundar found a sense of ambition. He had been with Ertugrul Ghazi, ever since the beginning, yet, he was not dee

Who was Aydogdu bey?

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    During the early era of the Ottoman Empire, there were many notable warriors & officials, whose lives were sacrificed for the creation of their state.  Unfortunately, not much information remained from the astounding, early Ottoman heroes. Though, among them came a man whose bravery & valor was impressive to the point, that history remembered him during an era in which people were forgotten. He was the grandson of Ertugrul Ghazi, nephew of Osman Ghazi, & eldest son of Gunduz Alp: Aydogdu Bey.     Aydogdu Bey's date of birth was estimated to be between 1284 and 1287,  near the Byzantine border. He was personally trained by his uncle, Osman, and would grow up to become a very commendable warrior. From a very young age, Aydogdu would take part in many wars & battles along with Osman Ghazi. Osman would in turn, become so fond of his nephew, Aydogdu, that he would even send him as an ambassador to the Seljuq Sultan. The fact that such a significant duty was given to

Who was Gunduz Bey?

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    Grandson of Sulayman Shah, eldest son of Ertugrul  Ghazi, loyal brother & supporter of Osman Ghazi, who was Gunduz Alp? Gunduz Alp was among the early Ghazis of the Ottoman Empire, whom had devoted their lives to the establishment of a great state. Moreover, the feats & exploits of Gunduz Alp proved him to be one the fiercest warriors of the Ottomans. Nevertheless, what has history said about the Ottoman hero, Gunduz Alp?     Gunduz Alp was born in Sogut, in the year 1229. He grew up in the household of Ertugrul Ghazi, as his eldest son; and had the honor & privilege of accompanying him on many  campaigns and expeditions. Gunduz proved to be a real branch of support to his father, becoming his close confidant & companion. This sense of responsibly & ambition truly gave Gunduz Alp experience & intellect at a young age.        Gunduz Bey was said to have been in his mid-twenties in the year 1258, when his youngest brother, Osman I was born. Due to the old ag

The Real History of Savci Bey

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       Known for being the most mysterious of Ertugrul Ghazi's sons, who was Savci Bey? Savci Bey was the grandson of Sulyaman Shah, second son of Ertugrul Ghazi, & older brother of Osman Ghazi; the founder of the Ottoman Empire. During his lifetime, Savci was said to have been the most noteworthy advisor of Osman, playing a crucial role in the establishment of the Ottoman State. His life & legacy truly put him among the Ottoman Empire's most fascinating, early statesmen. And so, after seeing his name among the graceful children of Ertugrul Ghazi, many could not help but ask: "what do we know about the life of Savci Bey?" Savci Bey     Raised in the very household of Ertugrul Ghazi, Savci Bey was destined to come to greatness. From a young age, Savci was interested in the arts of science & knowledge. And so, he would grow up staying firm on the belief that great states were built through  knowledge & reasoning, as oppose to swords & battles. Savci

Who were the Oghuz Turks?

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    Upon leaving this world, the ancient ruler & ancestor of the Turks; Oguz Khan, had left behind 6 sons.  These 6 children of his would take rulership of 4 tribes each; and in total, there would be 24 branches of Oguz Tribes. And so, the Oguz Turks' kingdoms would spread all throughout Asia, Africa, & even Europe. Their might was heard in all 4 corners of the world, and their valor & bravery was renowned. Many of the greatest empires in history would be from their lineage. In this article, we will learn about their traditions, cultures, laws, social norms, and ancient history that ultimately made them become the famous Oghuz Turks, whom history itself exalted.  The Oghuz Turks     Born to become warriors, the Oghuz Turks were known to have been trained in sword fighting, archery, and horse riding from a very young age. Along with that, they were taught to highly respect & protect their laws, cultures, traditions & flags above everything else; as they were th