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Did George Washington pay taxes to the Ottoman Empire?

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    During the periods of Sultan Bayezid II and Sultan Selim I, the Ottoman Navy was expanding and employing experienced sailors . When Barbaros Hayreddin was made Grand Admiral in 1534, the Ottoman Navy would become the most dominant force in the sea, and it would change the course of Ottoman History. Outnumbering, allied Christian fleets would be indefinitely defeated, and Ottoman Sultans would be called "Sultans of the seas". Ottoman Sea warriors in North Africa ventured beyond the Mediterranean into the Atlantic. Ottoman sea power extended to the point that Britain itself was forced to pay taxes to the Ottomans. And so when America gained its independence from Britain, it was forced to do the same when all of its resisting navy ships were captured by the Ottomans. Despite all the money spent on his navy, George Washington was left with no choice but to sign a treaty in Turkish accepting all the terms of the Ottomans, including tax payments. To this day, it is the only eve

How did Dundar Bey die?

     One of the most debated topics of early Ottoman History: Dundar Bey's death. Many great historians believe that Dundar Bey was not killed by his nephew, Osman I, while other notable sources claim he was. Some say he was killed by Osman's bow, while others argue he died of a natural cause. As a result, a question is frequently asked: how did Dundar Bey die in actual history?

    In order to come to a conclusion as to how Dundar died, we must look at his situation & the circumstances surrounding him. Dundar was among the 300 families to accompany Ertugrul Ghazi to the Byzantine border, despite the fact that roughly 1,000 families remained with Gundogdu & Sungurtekin. Though he had made several errors & mistakes, Dundar had remained loyal to his brother, Ertugrul Ghazi, and only dreamt of serving his nation. However, after the death of Ertugrul Ghazi, Dundar found a sense of ambition. He had been with Ertugrul Ghazi, ever since the beginning, yet, he was not deemed a worthy leader by his folk & people. An so instead, the young valiant son of Ertugrul Ghazi, Osman Ghazi, would be elected as the chief of the tribe. 

    The fact that Osman Ghazi was elected as bey of the tribe instead him, made Dundar Bey very irritated.  To make things worse, Dundar had very a different ideology than that of Osman & would express a great amount of resentment in the decisions made by him. In fact, when Osman had decided on conquering a nearby Greek island, Dundar Bey strongly disagreed. He argued that it would only increase their enemies & weaken their power. It is now that we get to the discussion of the treachery & death of Dundar Bey. 

     Some have argued that Osman had his uncle Dundar killed simply because of his displeasure in Dundar Bey's resentment in his decision. And that Dundar Bey had committed no actual treason, & had not cooperated with Osman's enemies. Furthermore, they even go so far as stating that the uncertainty regarding Dundar's death is due to Ottoman sources trying to hide the fact, that Osman killed his own uncle, and without proper reason. Though, this could not possibly be true, as during the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, Osman Ghazi took all measures to create a strong foundation to his state. Osman had set up courts with Qadis, who were qualified Islamic judges. If he were to kill Dundar Bey, he would have to present the court with a reasonable cause and evidence, such as treachery to the state. Not to mention, the early era of the Ottoman Empire is known as a black hole in history, and so, it is not only Dundar's death, that remains a mystery.

    After disagreeing with Osman, Dundar had enough of his quarreling with him. Dundar wished to have himself the leader of the tribe. This is when historians argue whether Dundar actually planned an assassination attempt with Osman's enemies, or only stayed silent, when he had known about it. Though, it would have been almost impossible for Dundar Bey to know about the trap without communicating with Osman's enemies. Anyhow, Osman would survive the trap & come to know about the treachery of his uncle Dundar. Sources disagree on whether Osman actually killed his uncle, or let him live. It is possible that Dundar was not executed by Osman, and instead, died a natural death. The fact that Dundar had reached such an old age at the time of his death, only makes it more believable that he could have very well died from a natural cause. 

    After Osman learned about his uncle's betrayal, he knew it was the last straw. Historians differ on exactly how Dundar Bey was executed. Some sources say that the royal blood was not spilled, and Osman strangled him with a bow. Other sources say that Osman had shot him with an arrow. Though, historians have even argued that Osman struck his uncle, Dundar, with his sword, giving him a fatal blow. 

    Although we do admit, that there are just too many different opinions on the death of Dundar Bey, we do know one thing for sure: Dundar Bey was the first traitor of the Ottoman Empire. "Was Dundar killed by Osman? Why was he killed by Osman? How was he killed by Osman?" Comment down in the comments section below. Which perspective do you take, which is your story of Dundar Bey? 



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