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Did George Washington pay taxes to the Ottoman Empire?

    During the periods of Sultan Bayezid II and Sultan Selim I, the Ottoman Navy was expanding and employing experienced sailors . When Barbaros Hayreddin was made Grand Admiral in 1534, the Ottoman Navy would become the most dominant force in the sea, and it would change the course of Ottoman History. Outnumbering, allied Christian fleets would be indefinitely defeated, and Ottoman Sultans would be called "Sultans of the seas". Ottoman Sea warriors in North Africa ventured beyond the Mediterranean into the Atlantic. Ottoman sea power extended to the point that Britain itself was forced to pay taxes to the Ottomans. And so when America gained its independence from Britain, it was forced to do the same when all of its resisting navy ships were captured by the Ottomans. Despite all the money spent on his navy, George Washington was left with no choice but to sign a treaty in Turkish accepting all the terms of the Ottomans, including tax payments. To this day, it is the only eve

Who was Gunduz Bey?

    Grandson of Sulayman Shah, eldest son of Ertugrul Ghazi, loyal brother & supporter of Osman Ghazi, who was Gunduz Alp? Gunduz Alp was among the early Ghazis of the Ottoman Empire, whom had devoted their lives to the establishment of a great state. Moreover, the feats & exploits of Gunduz Alp proved him to be one the fiercest warriors of the Ottomans. Nevertheless, what has history said about the Ottoman hero, Gunduz Alp?

    Gunduz Alp was born in Sogut, in the year 1229. He grew up in the household of Ertugrul Ghazi, as his eldest son; and had the honor & privilege of accompanying him on many campaigns and expeditions. Gunduz proved to be a real branch of support to his father, becoming his close confidant & companion. This sense of responsibly & ambition truly gave Gunduz Alp experience & intellect at a young age.
    Gunduz Bey was said to have been in his mid-twenties in the year 1258, when his youngest brother, Osman I was born. Due to the old age of his parents, Gunduz's brother, Osman, was considered a miracle sent by God. Osman's intelligence, foresight & valor truly made him a very commendable leader. Moreover, Gunduz's father, Ertugrul Ghazi had entrusted the responsibilities of the Kayi Tribe to Osman, making it clear that Osman was destined to become the bey of the tribe. 

    Gunduz Bey was a strong, faithful supporter of his brother, Osman Ghazi. Though, on occasions, there were disagreements between him & Osman. In fact, Gunduz had at first, not accepted Osman's position as the bey of the Kayi Tribe. Moreover, Gunduz & Osman had disagreements on how the tribe should be run, and how they should react to their neighbors. However, the situation & thought of Gunduz Bey was not entirely similar to that of Dundar Bey's. As oppose to the latter (Dundar Bey), Osman Bey knew well that Gunduz had respect & obedience for his authority, despite their difference of opinion. 

    After Osman established the Ottoman State, Gunduz was with him in just about every mission, and was a core layer of support to him. He fought countless battles, and made a name for himself, as one of the Ottoman Empires' fiercest warriors. As a result of Gunduz Alp's loyalty, ability, and service to the Ottoman State, Osman granted him authority over a large region, where he would serve as the Sanjak Bey (governor) of Eskisehir. Not to mention, Gunduz would then have 2 valorous sons: Aydogdu & Aktimur. Like his father, Aydogdu Bey was an excellent warrior, who had his name written among history's most fearsome swordsmen. His younger brother, Aktimur Bey, too, would serve as a talented soldier & government official, during the establishment phase of the Ottoman Empire. And so, the two brothers proved to be worthy of their father, Gunduz Bey, and would most certainly carry on his legacy.

    In 1303, Gunduz Alp would die the honorable death of a martyr, fighting gallantly in battle, sacrificing his life for his nation. He was buried in Inegol, Turkey. Though, an honorary grave was built for him in Sogut, at Ertugrul Ghazi's mausoleum (along with all the other early Ottoman heroes). And today, Gunduz Alp has proven to be a very highly esteemed & respected historical figure, whose legacy will forever remain in the hearts of his people, the soil of his homeland. 

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