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Who was Köse Mihal? | The Real History of Mikhael Kosses | The First Byzantine to join the Ottomans

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    During the early era of the Ottoman Empire, there were many Byzantine lords and commanders that joined the ranks of the Ottomans, even converting to Islam. The first (significant one) among them being  Köse Mihal, also known as Mikhael Kosses. In this video we will go over his life, achievements, exploits, and the legacy he left behind.           Mikhael Kosses, an ethnic Greek, is believed to have been from the famous Palaiologos Dynasty, which ruled the Byzantine Empire from the years 1259 until its downfall in 1453CE, the longest a dynasty ever ruled the empire. Köse Mihal was the Byzantine governor of the Harmankaya Castle. The Harmankaya Castle was in the Uludag mountains in the foothills of Bilecik, Turkey. After taking part in a battle against Osman Ghazi, alongside the Byzantine governor of Eskisehir, he was captured and taken prisoner. However, he was forgiven by Osman for his valor and heroism.       In the following years, a trap would be set up for Osman by the neighbor

Did George Washington pay taxes to the Ottoman Empire?

    During the periods of Sultan Bayezid II and Sultan Selim I, the Ottoman Navy was expanding and employing experienced sailors. When Barbaros Hayreddin was made Grand Admiral in 1534, the Ottoman Navy would become the most dominant force in the sea, and it would change the course of Ottoman History. Outnumbering, allied Christian fleets would be indefinitely defeated, and Ottoman Sultans would be called "Sultans of the seas". Ottoman Sea warriors in North Africa ventured beyond the Mediterranean into the Atlantic. Ottoman sea power extended to the point that Britain itself was forced to pay taxes to the Ottomans. And so when America gained its independence from Britain, it was forced to do the same when all of its resisting navy ships were captured by the Ottomans. Despite all the money spent on his navy, George Washington was left with no choice but to sign a treaty in Turkish accepting all the terms of the Ottomans, including tax payments. To this day, it is the only ever US treaty to be written in a foreign language, and accepting to pay tax. This was the Barbary Treaty of 1795. 


The Ottoman Navy


    Back in those days, if one crossed the empire's territory, he had to pay tax. In return, the Ottomans would not only let them through their seas and lands, but would also protect their lives, goods, and ships. This was the basic law. However, the US ignored the Ottomans' sovereign rule in the seas, and attempted to trespass and overpower them with their navy. They suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Sea Ghazis. Washington then renovated the US navy and tried once more, only to be defeated once again. Finally, he agreed to pay the annual tribute of tax and also accepted the rest of the terms of the treaty listed by the Ottomans. Not to mention, the Ottoman Sea Ghazis never did any of the horrific acts the European Pirates did. The reality is that they were honorable and esteemed people who stuck to their word. That was why the seas became prosperous, and security proved to be stable.


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